189 People Results for the Tag: Animals

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Istvan Albert

Research Professor of Bioinformatics
Bioinformatics, large scale biological data analysis, microarrays and sequence analysis. Scientific programming, algorithm development. Database-driven web development.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Ottar Bjornstad

Huck Chair of Epidemiology; Distinguished Professor of Entomology and Biology; Adjunct Professor in Statistics
Population ecology and population dynamics with particular emphasis on mathematical and computational aspects

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Sonia Cavigelli

Associate Professor of Biobehavioral Health
Development of temperament/personality; relationship of temperament and social status to stress and health; individual differences in stress and health in the natural environment.

Jessica Conway

Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Biology
Viral infection dynamics and interplay with therapies for elimination or control

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Isabella Cattadori

Associate Professor of Biology
Immuno-epidemiology of co-infection, how host immunity modulates parasite interactions and transmission and how host molecular processes explain the dynamics of infection at the population level.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Sagan Friant

Assistant Research Professor
Evolutionary anthropology of human health, disease ecology, nutrition, socio-ecological systems, bushmeat hunting, Nigeria.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Adam Glick

Associate Chair, Molecular Cellular and Integrative Biosciences; Emphasis Area Representative, Cancer Biology; Professor of Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis;
The role of Transforming Growth Factor-beta in cutaneous inflammation and cancer development, and how the immune system responds to epithelial cells with activated oncogenes such as Ras. Signaling pathways that regulate senescence of premalignant epithelial cells and how cells escape from oncogene-induced senescence.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Bruce Gluckman

Professor of Engineering Science and Mechanics; Professor of Neurosurgery; Professor of Biomedical Engineering; Associate Director, Penn State Center for Neural Engineering
The dynamics of neural systems, how group dynamics form or emerge from the coupled dynamics of individual units, and how to measure and interact with these systems.

Susan Hafenstein

Director of the Center for Structural Biology; Huck Chair of Structural Virology; Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Using a structural approach to learn more about viral infectivity, tropism, evolution and pathogenicity. Developing approaches to visualize critical events that cause a break from the regular symmetry of the virus, including packaging of the genome, receptor usage, antibody interactions and uncoating of the viral genome during the final stages of infection.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Wendy Hanna-Rose

Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Head of BMB
Molecular Genetics of Metabolism and Development in C. elegans

Heather Hines

Associate Professor of Biology and Entomology
Applies genomic, transcriptomic, phylogenomic, and bioinformatic approaches to study the evolution and genetics of diverse traits in bees and wasps. This includes study of mimetic color diversification, plant gall induction, novel morphologies, speciation, and social evolution.

Kevin Hockett

Huck Early Career Chair; Assistant Professor of Microbial Ecology
Biological Control, Biology and Ecology of Plant-Microbe and Plant-Environment Interactions, Microbial Ecology and Population Biology Faculty

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

David Hughes

Huck Chair in Global Food Security; Professor of Entomology and Biology
Parasite manipulation of host behavior

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Timothy Jegla

Emphasis Area Representative, Molecular and Evolutionary Genetics; Associate Professor of Biology
Functional evolution of eukaryotic ion channels and evolution of neuronal signaling and cell structure.

Dezhe Jin

Associate Professor of Physics
Computational models of neural basis of motor control and learning; theoretical analysis of biological neural networks.

Girish Kirimanjeswara

Associate Professor of Veterinary and Biomedical Science
Establishing the Virulence Factors

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Aimin Liu

Associate Professor of Biology
Biogenesis and function of cilia in mammalian embryonic development.

Richard Mailman

Professor and College of Medicine Distinguished Senior Scholar

Elizabeth McGraw

Professor and Huck Scholar in Entomology
The genetics of vector, pathogen and symbiont interactions.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Timothy McNellis

Associate Professor of Plant Pathology & Environmental Microbiology
Genetics, molecular biology and physiology of plant interactions with phytopathogenic bacteria. Signal transduction events involved in plant disease resistance. Genetic control of plant hypersensitive cell death.

Robert Paulson

Professor of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences
The Paulson lab studies the mechanisms that regulate tissue regeneration with a focus on understanding the response to anemic and hypoxic stress

Tim Reluga

Associate Professor of Mathematics and Biology
Dynamics of biological systems

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Melissa Rolls

Chair, Intercollege Graduate Degree Program in Molecular, Cellular and Integrative Biosciences; Co-Director of the Center for Cellular Dynamics; Paul Berg Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Subcellular compartmentalization of neurons. The cellular basis of neuronal polarity and neuronal responses to injury including degeneration and regeneration.

Anthony Schmitt

Professor of Molecular Immunology and Infectious Diseases
The process of paramyxovirus particle formation by budding: identifying and characterizing viral proteins used in budding, and learning how these manipulate host budding machinery to allow virus release.

Troy Sutton

Assistant Professor of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences
Animal models of influenza; Airborne transmission of influenza viruses; Evolution of pandemic influenza viruses; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; Development of live-attenuated influenza vaccine platforms; High containment BSL3+ research

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Daniel Weiss

Associate Professor of Psychology
The cognitive mechanisms underlying language acquisition

Yinong Yang

Professor, Department of Plant Pathology and Environmental Microbiology
Signal perception and transduction in rice-pathogen interactions. Molecular and genomic strategies for increasing disease resistance and drought tolerance in cereal crops.

Nanyin Zhang

Huck Chair in Brain Imaging; Professor of Bioengineering
Investigate the pathophysiology of brain disorders using neuroimaging, behavioral and optogenetic methods.

Anne Vardo-Zalik

Assistant Professor of Biology
The ecology and population genetics of malaria parasites and their vectors

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

David R Hunter

Professor of Statistics, Department Head
I work on statistical models for networks, mixture models, and certain optimization algorithms called MM algorithms. A full list of papers and related work, such as software, may be found at http://sites.stat.psu.edu/~dhunter/.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Edward Dudley

Professor of Food Science; Director of E. coli Reference Center
Mechanisms driving toxin production in Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli; use of genome sequencing to track pathogen transmission during foodborne outbreaks

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Ephraim M. Hanks

Associate Professor of Statistics
Spatio-Temporal Statistics. Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling. Optimal Sampling. Animal Movement. Landscape Genetics.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Erika Machtinger

Assistant Professor of Entomology
Veterinary entomology, including vector-borne diseases. Focus is on ecology and behavior associated with host-parasite interactions to improve or develop new control methods.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Iliana Baums

Professor of Biology
Molecular ecology and evolution of reef invertebrates.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Ira Ropson

Associate Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Folding, stability and function of proteins.

Jasna Kovac

Lester Earl and Veronica Casida Career Development Professor of Food Safety; Assistant Professor of Food Science
Integrating epidemiological, microbiological, molecular and omics methods to better understand microbial pathogenic potential, antimicrobial resistance, and epidemiology of foodborne pathogens.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Maciej F Boni

Associate Professor of Biology
Human influenza epidemiology and evolution, evaluating population-level malaria treatment strategies with individual-based microsimulation models, phylogenetic analysis of avian influenza evolution in southern Vietnam, economic epidemiology of avian influenza, evaluating population-level efficacy of a potential dengue vaccine with mathematical models

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Monica Medina

Professor of Biology

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Peter Hudson

Former Director, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences; Willaman Professor of Biology
Population dynamics of infectious diseases in wildlife and the dynamics of parasite community structure.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Suresh Kuchipudi

Clinical Associate Professor; Section Head Mammalian Virology & Immunology
Diagnostic Virology & Serology -Zoonotic and Emerging Viruses -Negative strand RNA viruses -Avian and Mammalian influenza -Immune responses to viruses -Viral pathogenesis Quantitative-omics approach to virus-host interactions

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Andrew Deans

Professor of Entomology, Director of the Frost Entomological Museum

Bernhard Luscher

Emphasis Area Representative, Neurobiology; Director of the Center for Molecular Investigation of Neurological Disorders; Professor of Biology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Function of GABAergic synaptic transmission in health and disease, with emphasis of stress based psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorders and mechanisms of antidepressant drug action

Bhushan Jayarao

Professor of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences

Chad Dechow

Associate Professor of Dairy Cattle Genetics

Helen Kamens

Assistant Professor of Biobehavioral Health
Identification of genetic mechanisms that contribute to complex behaviors with a special emphasis on alcohol and tobacco use.

Joy Pate

Director of the Center for Reproductive Biology and Health; Professor of Reproductive Physiology; C. Lee Rumberger and Family Chair in Agricultural Sciences
Specializing in the area of ovarian function. Primary research interests focus on the interactions between steroidogenic and immune cells, and the role of microRNA in development and maintenance of the corpus luteum.

Joyce Sakamoto

Assistant Research Professor

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Kelli Hoover

Professor of Entomology
Invasive species of forest insects; plant-insect-entomopathogen interactions; impacts of plants on pathogenesis; biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid

Nina Jenkins

Research Associate Professor

Patrick Drew

Associate Director of the Neuroscience Institute; Huck Distinguished Associate Professor of Neural Engineering and Neurosurgery
Role of blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid movement in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, control of cerebral blood flow, neurovascular coupling.

Paul Bartell

Chair, Intercollege Graduate Degree Program in Neuroscience; Associate Professor of Avian Biology
The regulation of biological clocks in birds at the systems level.

Ramesh Ramachandran

Professor of Molecular Endocrinology
The influence of hypothalamic neurotransmitters, hormones, and their receptors on avian reproduction.

Ross Hardison

Associate Director of the Genome Sciences Institute; T. Ming Chu Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Regulation of gene expression during development.

Rudolf Schilder

Associate Professor of Entomology and Biology
Comparative & ecological physiology of insect and mammalian locomotion.

Scott Selleck

Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Stephen Schaeffer

Professor of Biology
Population Genetics and Genomics of Chromosomal Rearrangements in Drosophila

Tracy Langkilde

Professor of Biology; Dean of the Eberly College of Science
The interface of ecology and evolution to understand how an organism's traits are matched to its environment and responds to novel selective pressures imposed by global environmental change, and the consequences of this adaptation.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Troy Ott

Associate Director for Graduate Education, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences; Professor of Reproductive Physiology
Reproductive immunology and the physiology of early pregnancy.

Wansheng Liu

Professor of Genomics
Functional annotation of farm animal genomes, structure and function of mammalian sex (X and Y) chromosome, spermatogenesis and male fertility.

Eleanore Sternberg

Research Associate - Thomas Lab

Kurt Vandegrift

Associate Professor
Disease ecology with an emphasis on the population dynamics of zoonotic parasites and reservoir hosts.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Robab Katani

Assistant Research Professor of Global Health
Global health security, infectious diseases, and host-pathogen dynamics, as well as expertise in the enhancement of capabilities in the Low- and Middle-Income Countries, including Tanzania and India.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

David Kennedy

Assistant Professor of Biology
Ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with particular interest in how disease dynamics influence pathogen emergence, virulence evolution, and drug or vaccine resistance.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Joanna Floros

Evan Pugh Professor of Cellular and Molecular Physiology,OB/GYN

Sally Assmann

Waller Professor of Biology
Molecular biology of plant G-proteins and kinases. Phytohormone regulation of signal transduction and RNA processing. Second messenger regulation of ion channels in plant cells.

James Connor

Distinguished Professor and Vice Chair of Neurosurgery
Iron transport and toxicity in neurodegenerative diseases/oxidative cell injury.

Jack Vanden Heuvel

Director of the Center for Excellence in Nutrigenomics; Professor of Molecular Toxicology
Mechanisms of action of hypolipidemic drugs and peroxisome proliferators; steroid hormone receptor-mediated signal transduction; signal transduction by lipids and fatty acids; receptor-mediated carcinogenesis.

Donald Bryant

Ernest C. Pollard Professor of Biotechnology; Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Photosynthesis, structure-function relationships of proteins, gene regulation, and microbial physiology. Cyanobacteria and green sulfur bacteria. Genomics of photosynthetic bacteria.

Richard Frisque

Professor of Molecular Virology

Sarah Bronson

Associate Professor of Cellular and Molecular Physiology

Neil Christensen

Professor of Pathology and Microbiology and Immunology

Kevin Alloway

Professor Emeritus of Neural and Behavioral Sciences
Neural basis of sensorimotor integration neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, optogenetics.

Laura Klein

Professor of Biobehavioral Health
Biobehavioral effects of stress on drug abuse; sex differences in neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses; nicotine regulation of stress reactivity.

David Geiser

Professor of Mycology
Molecular evolutionary genetics of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi.

Regina Vasilatos-Younken

Dean of the Graduate School; Professor of Poultry Science, Endocrine Physiology, and Nutrition
Role of endocrine and metabolic factors in the regulation of muscle and adipose tissue growth.

Pamela Mitchell

Emeritus Associate Professor of Biology

Donna Korzick

Chair, Intercollege Graduate Degree Program in Integrative and Biomedical Physiology; Professor of Physiology and Kinesiology
My research is focused on aging, post-menopausal women, and cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury using animal models. We are particularly interested in the effects of estrogen deficiency on mitochondrial regulation of cell survival following myocardial infarction. Multiple levels of inquiry addressing mitochondrial quality control regulation and immune signaling is emphasized.

Joan Richtsmeier

Professsor of Anthropology
Analysis of craniofacial phenotypes.

Jong Yun

Professor of Pharmacology

Karam El-Bayoumy

Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Shantu Amin

Professor of Pharmacology

Jianming Hu

Professor of Microbiology and Immunology

Kumble Sandeep Prabhu

Professor of Immunology and Molecular Toxicology
Molecular mechanisms by which bioactives such as selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, and other products of natural origin alter the host response and immune function in inflammation and cancer

Keefe Manning

Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Surgery
Understanding the native cardiovascular system fluid mechanics; understanding the diseased cardiovascular system fluid mechanics, and the impact that cardiovascular prosthetics generate during and post implantation.

Duane Diefenbach

Adjunct Asst. Professor of Wildlife Ecology; Leader, PA Coop. Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
Wildlife ecology, estimation of population parameters, and harvest management of game populations.

Tyler Wagner

Adjunct Professor of Fisheries Ecology

Jeffery Sample

Professor of Microbiology

Tomas Carlo-Joglar

Associate Professor of Biology

Joshua Lambert

Associate Professor of Food Science
Dietary polyphenols in prevention of obesity and fatty liver disease; efficacy and mechanisms of action of food-derived phytochemicals in prevention of lung cancer; biotransformation, bioavailability and potential hepatotoxicity of dietary phytochemicals

Carolyn Mahan

Professor of Biology
The study of biodiversity in threatened ecosystems, the effects of human-modified landscapes on wildlife, and behavioral ecology of sciurids. Dr. Mahan teaches introductory biology, environmental studies, field ecology, and evolution.

Ying Gu

Associate Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. Genetic modification of plant cell wall to scale-up biofuel production.

David Miller

Associate Professor of Wildlife Population Ecology
Population ecology, quantitative ecology, avian and amphibian ecology, conservation decision analysis, life-history evolution.

W. David Walter

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Wildlife Ecology

Tim Miyashiro

Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
How bacteria adapt to a host environment. The mutualistic symbiosis established between the Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) and a bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri).

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Reuben Kraft

Shuman Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Computational methods and high performance computing to examine brain neurotrauma biomechanics; human structural connectome analysis using physics-based predictions of biomechanical brain injury.

Jonas Rubenson

Associate Professor of Kinesiology
Integrating experimental and modeling approaches to study gait and skeletal muscle function during locomotion in both health and disease/impairment. In particular, the relationship between in vivo muscle mechanics and metabolic energetics and mechanisms underlying locomotor adaptation and optimization.

Xiaojun Lian

Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering
Human Stem Cell Engineering; Genome Editing via CRISPR-Cas9; Epigenome Editing and Epigenetics.

Daniel Hayes

Huck Chair in Nanotherapeutics and Regenerative Medicine; Professor of Biomedical Engineering
Biomaterials engineering for applications ranging from regenerative medicine to lab-on-a-chip technologies. An emphasis on nanomaterials, macromolecules and composite structures. Ongoing efforts include development of optically and magnetically modulated drug delivery systems, quasi 3D cell sheet culture systems, cell encapsulation and delivery materials and hybrid in situ polymerizing grafts/augments.

Mary Kathryn Schmitz

Professor of Epidemiology

Thomas Gould

Jean Phillips Shibley Professor and Department Head of Biobehavioral Health
Using genetic, pharmacological, behavioral, and molecular biological techniques to study the neurobiology of learning and memory and the effects of addiction on it.

Thomas Neuberger

Director, High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging Facility; Associate Research Professor

Gang Ning

Director, Microscopy Core Facility
Using microscopy and flow cytometry to analyze structures and biochemical properties of cells.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Andrew Patterson

Professor and Huck Chair of Molecular Toxicology; Faculty Oversight, Metabolomics Core Facility
The Patterson lab is focused on understanding the host-metabolite-microbiome axis

Matthew Jones

Research Assistant - Read Lab and McGraw Lab

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Elizabeth Proctor

Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery, Pharmacology, Biomedical Engineering, and Engineering Science & Mechanics
Systems biology of complex disease. Integration of heterogeneous data types across length scales.

Yin-Ting (Tim) Yeh

Assistant Research Professor of Physics - Terrones Lab
Multidisciplinary study focused on developing point-of-care technologies for rapid detection of infectious diseases.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Krishnankutty Sathian

Director of the Neuroscience Institute; Professor and Chair of Neurology; Professor of Psychology

Julian Avery

Assistant Research Professor
Conservation biology, invasive species ecology, effects of human disturbance on biodiversity, illegal reptilian wildlife trade, animal coloration and the ecology of visual signals.

Janine Kwapis

Assistant Professor of Biology
Molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying learning and memory and age-related memory impairments.

Anna Estes

Assistant Research Professor

Nikki Crowley

Assistant Professor of Biology
investigation of peptidergic transmission throughout the brain, using cell-specific and pathway-specific manipulations to understand how peptides alter neuronal signaling and behavior, particularly in the context of stress and drug use.

Raymond Hohl

University Professor of Oncology; Professor of Pharmacology

Mauricio Pontes

Assistant Professor of Pathology

Derek Lee

Associate Research Professor

Herschel Elliott

Professor of Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Terry Etherton

Distinguished Professor of Animal Nutrition

Justin DiAngelo

Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Josephine Wee

Assistant Professor of Food Science

Bob Roberts

Professor and Head of Food Science

Bronwen Powell

Assistant Professor of Geography, African Studies and Anthropology

Erika Ganda

Assistant Professor of Food Animal Microbiomes
Developing practical ways to leverage the microbiome to improve food safety and improve food production animals' production efficiency.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Emily Davenport

Assistant Professor of Biology
Understanding the complex relationship humans have with our microbiomes, using high-throughput sequencing technologies and novel computational and statistical techniques.

Francisco Dini-Andreote

Assistant Professor of Plant Science
Microbiome, plant-microbe interactions, and community ecology. Harnessing the plant microbiome to enhance protection against biotic and abiotic stresses.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Howie Weiss

Professor of Biology
I am a Biomathematican and very recently moved to Penn State from Georgia Tech (I also had appointments at Emory in Public Health and PBEE). Bacteria and their viruses (phages) provide a way to study ecological and evolutionary processes in real time under the well-controlled laboratory conditions. Many of the questions that our group studies lie at the intersection of fundamental science and improving human and animal health. We develop new approaches to mathematical modeling to better understand the role of the physical structure in how bacteria grow and evolve. To complement this computational work, we work closely with microbiologists, biochemists, virologists, physicians, veterinarians, etc. and combine mathematical models with experiments. In recent years I have taught courses in virus dynamics, population genetics, dynamics and bifurcations, advanced linear algebra, and stochastic processes.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

Heather Karsten

Associate Professor of Crop Production/Ecology

Ruairidh Sawers

Assistant Professor of Plant Response to Abiotic Stress
Local adaptation and stress tolerance in crop plants and their wild relatives; plant nutrition; arbuscular mycorrhizae; maize genetics and genomics.

Vladimir Itskov

Associate Professor of Mathematics

Sara Hermann

Assistant Professor of Arthropod Ecology and Trophic Interactions

Yao Guo

Research Assistant - Luscher Lab

Denise Okafor

Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Structural mechanisms of signaling and regulation in protein complexes.

William Driscoll

Assistant Professor of Biology

Amir Sheikhi

Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering
Micro- and nanoengineered soft materials for medicine and the environment; microfluidic-enabled biomaterials for tissue engineering and regeneration; living materials; next-generation bioadhesives, tissue sealants, and hemostatic agents; hydrogels for minimally invasive medical technologies; self-healing and adaptable soft materials; smart coatings; hairy nanocelluloses as an emerging family of advanced materials.

Rachel Brennan

Associate Professor of Environmental Engineering

David Blandford

Professor Emeritus of Agricultural and Environmental Economics

Christine Costello

Assistant Professor of Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Marvin Hall

Professor Emeritus of Forage Management

James Shortle

Distinguished Professor of Agricultural and Environmental Economics

Richard Stehouwer

Professor of Environmental Soil Science

Tae Hyun Kim

Huck Early Career Chair; Assistant Professor of Avian Biology

Elizabeth Hines

Assistant Professor of Animal Science

Jason Keagy

Assistant Research Professor of Wildlife Behavioral Ecology
Cognitive ecology (with studies at genome, individual, and species levels). I am particularly interested in applications for solving wildlife management problems

Franny Buderman

Assistant Professor of Quantitative Wildlife Ecology
Quantitative ecology, with a focus on the demography, space-use, and movement of wildlife.

Adrian Barragan

Assistant Research Professor; Extension Veterinarian

Adele Turzillo

Professor and Department Head of Animal Science

Yuguo (Leo) Lei

Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty Oversight, Sartorius Cell Culture Facility
Cell therapy; Cell manufacturing; Biomaterials

Ruobo Zhou

Assistant Professor of Chemistry
Quantitatively and functionally understanding the compartmentalization and spatiotemporal organization of protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions involved in fundamental cell functions as well as in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.