Motor actions are one of the most interesting features of the animal kingdom. How humans learn new motor behaviors is therefore a fundamental field in neuroscience. Recent investigations have indicated that during motor learning several processes are engaged including cognitive strategies, reinforcement mechanisms, use dependent learning, and error-based learning. In this presentation I will discuss recent work in my lab describing some of the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie these distinct processes in humans. This work also points to the role of different neural regions during motor learning and hints to the potential of manipulating brain processes in humans to augment learning.